Cochrane Editorials News

Cochrane is a British non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers. Cochrane contributors (37,000 from more than 130 countries) work together to produce credible, accessible health information that is free from commercial sponsorship and other conflicts of interest. Many of our contributors are world leaders in their fields – medicine, health policy, research methodology, or consumer advocacy – and our groups are situated in some of the world’s most respected academic and medical institutions. Contact us for more information.

HPV vaccination: balancing facts

Recent history demonstrates that vaccination of children to prevent future disease can induce an often‐acrimonious debate.[1] Add into this mix a vaccine aimed at adolescent girls to prevent an infection acquired through sexual contact, to prevent a disease that causes harm in adulthood, and the scene is set for a […]

Adverse events associated with medium‐ and long‐term use of opioids for chronic non‐cancer pain: an overview of Cochrane Reviews

Abstract Background Chronic pain is common and can be challenging to manage. Despite increased utilisation of opioids, the safety and efficacy of long-term use of these compounds for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) remains controversial. This overview of Cochrane Reviews complements the overview entitled ‘High-dose opioids for chronic non-cancer pain: an […]

Different methods and settings for glucose monitoring for gestational diabetes during pregnancy

Abstract Background Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. Blood glucose monitoring plays a crucial part in maintaining glycaemic control in women with GDM and is generally recommended by healthcare professionals. There are several different methods for monitoring blood glucose which can be carried out in different settings […]

Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community‐dwelling populations

Abstract Background Excessive alcohol use contributes significantly to physical and psychological illness, injury and death, and a wide array of social harm in all age groups. A proven strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption levels is to offer a brief conversation-based intervention in primary care settings, but more recent technological […]

Implementation strategies for health systems in low‐income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

Appendix 2. Search strategies PubMed From 2000 to present. Update :weekly #1. MEDLINE[Title/Abstract] #2. (systematic[Title/Abstract] AND review[Title/Abstract]) #3. meta analysis[Publication Type] #4. #1 OR #2 OR #3 (Methods filter for systematic reviews–Clinical Queries–Max Specificity) #5. overview[Title] AND (reviews[Title] OR systematic[Title] #6. meta-review[Title] #7. review of reviews[Title] #8. review[Title] AND systematic […]

Parenteral anticoagulation in ambulatory patients with cancer

Abstract Background Anticoagulation may improve survival in patients with cancer through a speculated anti-tumour effect, in addition to the antithrombotic effect, although may increase the risk of bleeding. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral anticoagulants in ambulatory patients with cancer who, typically, are undergoing chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, […]

Clinician‐targeted interventions to influence antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections in primary care: an overview of systematic reviews

Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health threat. Interventions that reduce antibiotic prescribing by clinicians are expected to reduce antibiotic resistance. Disparate interventions to change antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been trialled and meta-analysed, but not yet synthesised in an overview. This overview synthesises evidence […]

Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections

Plain language summary Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections Review question We investigated the effect of delaying antibiotic prescription compared to immediate prescription or no antibiotics for people with respiratory tract infections including sore throat, middle ear infection, cough (bronchitis), and the common cold. We included all RTIs regardless […]

Cytology versus HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in the general population

Abstract Background Cervical cancer screening has traditionally been based on cervical cytology. Given the aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical carcinogenesis, HPV testing has been proposed as an alternative screening test. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of HPV testing for detecting histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias […]

Interventions for emergency contraception

Background Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is […]

Calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal or tapering for kidney transplant recipients

Abstract Background Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can reduce acute transplant rejection and immediate graft loss but are associated with significant adverse effects such as hypertension and nephrotoxicity which may contribute to chronic rejection. CNI toxicity has led to numerous studies investigating CNI withdrawal and tapering strategies. Despite this, uncertainty remains about […]

Non‐invasive ventilation for the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Abstract Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is commonly used to treat patients admitted to hospital with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) secondary to an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Objectives To compare the efficacy of NIV applied in conjunction with usual care […]

All interventions are complex, but some are more complex than others: using iCAT_SR to assess complexity

The term ‘complex intervention’ is commonly used by health researchers. However, what makes an intervention complex (or indeed whether there is any such thing as a non-complex intervention), remains contested.[1,2] Early guidance from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) positioned complexity as an internal property of a new way of […]

Desmopressin use for minimising perioperative blood transfusion

Background Blood transfusion is administered during many types of surgery, but its efficacy and safety are increasingly questioned. Evaluation of the efficacy of agents, such as desmopressin (DDAVP; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), that may reduce perioperative blood loss is needed. Objectives To examine the evidence for the efficacy of DDAVP in reducing perioperative […]